All posts by B O design studio

in like a lion, or a towhee.

Late February and early March have been notable so far for obnoxious winds. If you don’t live in SE NC, imagine soupy clouds of pine pollen and being pelted unpredictably by sweetgum balls.

towhee 8 halyburton feb252018 ldb
male Eastern Towhee. Tail-spreading is also a threat display.

On a recent wander through a local park, this Eastern Towhee was singing at the top of his lungs before getting blasted from behind by a sudden shocking breeze. Several guides note that this species is more often spotted closer to the ground, but we’ve seen what we think is this same bird over the last couple of years in the same spot, high up on the same tree, in the same park, singing the same song…a living trail marker. He’s the only one we see, but others are audible.

ducks 5 halyburton feb252018 ldb
mallard pair.

A little farther into the park, notable for its remaining longleaf pine/wiregrass/turkey oak community and interesting topography, this mallard pair was enjoying a high water day in one of the lime sinks. (which is often totally dry…) It’s a pretty neat spot – a little higher along the rim of the sandy depression, there are several Litsea aestivalis, Pondspice – a rare plant in NC, and federally listed as a species of special concern. Happy almost-spring…

IMG_8969 litsea backlit
Litsea aestivalis, aka Pondspice. This photo was taken a couple of years ago in early March – check out the zig-zag twigs and buds ready to open. This species sports tiny pale yellow flowers prior to leafing.






And what are you doing here? These two were sharing (?) a branch, about 5 feet apart, waiting out a hard rain on Super Bowl Sunday.
Bald eagle has more interesting things to think about.
A couple of weeks ago. This is one of a pair who spent a long while checking out the neighborhood.

Bald eagles might’ve discovered the neighborhood, to the consternation of crows who are accustomed to harassing the local hawks. Bald eagles are not uncommon in SE NC, especially along the coast, but seeing them a bit further inland apparently scoping the suburbs has to be a sign of something. Friends living closer to tidal creeks and spoil islands have been seeing more of them as well, so maybe there is some kind of population boom, and/or there is less available territory. Our neighborhood, about one square mile in area, still has some very large old pines and green open space, areas that are typically used by red-shouldered and red-tailed hawks, and osprey, during warmer months. It’ll be interesting to see if they decide to hang around. Check out this work by NC State scientists studying bald eagle movements.

…and I’m outta here.

…here’s a place to insert a clever comment about the 2018 Super Bowl winners. Or you can check out some Superb Owls, if you’d rather.

lives they lived

Thanks, Google! A last aerial photo of the uncleared site, for posterity.
Bye-bye Shaggy blazing star, Liatris pilosa. Fantastic pollinator magnet. Haven’t seen this anywhere else.

In the spirit of The New York Times tributes to those lost during the previous year, here’s a plant life contribution from SE NC. Goodbye, little patch o’ longleaf.

Longleaf community reincarnated into fast food joint, complete with ORANGE rock mulch and pampas grass  (anticipated view, this one is up the road a bit.)

But hello Chick-fil-A! Yeah, some of us crave salty chicken bombs once in a while, but not enough to require 3 identical restaurants within a few-mile radius.

Here’s an incomplete (and imperfect) list of who was inhabiting this tiny parcel  (top right) just a few short months ago…

bye-bye October flower, Polygonella polygama. Pollinated by bees, including Perdita polygonella – which ONLY nectars on this genus.
goodbye, Southern beeblossom, Gaura angustifolia. Local kin to the oft-planted ‘Whilring Butterflies.’

Acer rubrum, andropogon glomeratus, andropogon ternarius, aristida beyrichiana, arundinaria tecta, chrysopsis gossypina, dicanthelium sp., diospyros virginiana, eupatorium spp.,gaura angustifolia, gelsemium sempervirens, gentiana autumnalis, heterotheca subaxillaris, ilex glabra, ilex vomitoria, ilex opaca, liatris pilosa, lyonia lucida, morella cerifera, panicum spp., pinus palustris, pinus taeda, pityopsis graminifolia, quercus laevis, quercus nigraquercus virginiana, smilax spp.trilisa odoratissima, vaccinium crasssifolium…

Not pampas grass. Think this is Splitbeard bluestem, Andropogon ternarius. All gone now.
See ya, spent blooms of Vanilla Leaf / Deer-tongue, Trilisa odoratissima. Leaves were used to flavor tobacco…

And probably a lot more, since I only took one opportunity on a November afternoon to wander and observe. Wish I had taken a few more, since this place was one of very few islands of residual ‘nature’ remaining in the north New Hanover county asphalt-n-subdivision sea. As of last month, it’s been cleared and graded, as predicted. Sigh.

You can’t (re)make this kind of plant community from scratch. And ‘tree protection’ ordinances don’t protect the less charismatic (clearly not IMHO) understory.

A closer view.

The banner and left photos are (WERE) pine barren gentian, Gentiana autumnalis, a member of fire-dependent longleaf and pond pine communities. Not sold at the garden center of the adjacent Lowe’s Home Imrpovement.

Happy 2018, everyone!!!!

MAGA right?!!!


hermit thrush, why are you shy?

hermit thrush, lurking in yaupon / ilex vomitoria. a winter visitor to SE NC.  not much song for us, just some secretive shame …

you have such a lovely song.

native american legends say  when birds flew into the heavens to collect their songs, those who flew highest would find the best songs. you thought you wouldn’t be able to fly high enough, so you hitched a ride hidden in an eagle’s ruff, unbeknownst to the eagle, who began to tire and fall just before reaching the highest and best song. you slept on the eagle’s ascent, and tumbled out just in time to fetch the most beautiful song. you were so happy and proud! but when you returned to resentment of birds on the ground, you were soon ashamed of your deceitful ways.

sunrise 7:13 a.m., sunset 5:05 p.m.

so now you sing an enchanting song, but you creep and hide…




a SW Florida retention pond walkabout…

Here’s one of the nicer pond edges, abutting a subdivision conservation area. It was full of birds, which were almost loud enough to compete with various weekend machines.
Here’s the other side of the same pond.

Ever wonder what lives and grows along the margins of those orthogonal ponds?  I do.  (yup, easily amused…)The Thanksgiving challenge this year was to identify some of the stuff on the slim portions of unmown retention pond banks in a very wet planned community in SW Florida.

The fuzzy-looking plant looks like the fertile fronds of Ceratopteris thalictroides, also known as water sprite. This exotic fern, an escape from the home aquarium trade, is one of 2 species of Ceratopteris found in Florida. The other species, Ceratopteris pteridoides, is apparently more of a floater and considered native. (1)
Typical emergent vegetation in most of the neighborhood ponds includes Sagittaria lancifolia, Eleocharis  sp., Pontederia cordata, Scirpus spp.,and Hydrocotolye sp..

The ponds in these photos are a few years old, and have had time to accumulate a variety of both native and exotic invasive species in the areas where management practices allow for plants to duke it out on their own. Most of the diked high banks are mown down to seasonal high water, with a few exceptions in hard-to-access areas. Along the water itself, a few pockets of vegetation have proliferated, which are pretty popular with a variety of bird species.

Palm warbler stalking insects in  dried-out foliage of Ludwigia leptocarpa along  pond edge. This individual has a yellowish rump, like a Yellow-rumped warbler (another common winter resident), but it also sports the yellow undertail area characteristic of palm warblers. (not visible in photo.)
Adult common gallinule, peeking through a clump of Scirpus sp. / Bulrush.

In this neighborhood in late November, palm warblers seem to be the most visible songbirds of the moment, especially when they are plucking insects off of the ubiquitous pool cages! These winter visitors  spend the breeding season ‘in bogs and fens in the northern United States and Canada.’  Common gallinules (previously known as the common moorhen) were also hard to miss, both visually and aurally.  Small groups of adults and juveniles could be seen tip-toeing along the spatterdock at nearly all times of day. These marsh birds are also winter visitors, although their breeding grounds are more southerly than the palm warblers.

Caesar’s weed, Urena lobata. This species is on Florida’s Noxious Weed List,
Goldenrod, Solidago sp. – not sure which species…

It wouldn’t be southern Florida without a bunch of brightly-blooming plants in late November. Nearly all of the upper edges of the dikes contained the exotic Caesar’s weed, Urena lobata,  which bears a superficial resemblance to the spring-flowering native saltmarsh mallow, Kosteletzskya pentacarpos, we see  in FL as well as SE NC.  More expected fall bloomers included various species of native goldenrod, Solidago sp. and asters, Aster/Symphyotrichum spp..

Whate peacock butterfly nectaring on ubiquitous largeflower pusley. Multiply this view by 20 for a more accurate representation of what I was seeing…
Cupid’s shaving brush, Emilia fosbergii. Also called Florida tasselflower. Non-native annual in the Aster family, considered a lawn weed.


White peacock butterflies took advantage of the carpet of exotic largeflower pusley, Richardia grandiflora,  blooming on dike bank tops.  This annual, also called Mexican clover, was everywhere, with clusters of delicate white blooms attracting equally delicate clusters of white peacocks. Quite a show. Slightly lower and wetter areas contained the fantastically-named exotic, Cupid’s shaving brush, Emilia fosbergii. 

Common / spreading dayflower, Commelina diffusa.
Fall color in an Angle-stem flowering primrose, Ludwigia leptocarpa, I think…this plant had flowers with both 5 and 6 petals.

Common spreading dayflower, Commelina diffusa, a fleshy-leaved exotic scrambler, was mixed in to nearly all of the pond and shrub margins. Angle-stem primrose willow, Ludwigia leptocarpa, was both blooming and drying out along the pond edges. Its stiff woody stems were popular hiding places for the palm warblers. The Ludwigias are well-represented in SW Florida with both exotic and native species, but this particular native was a bit easier to identify since it has very long floral tubes and  a number of the flowers have 6 petals.

Southern river sage, Salvia nisella, or S. riparia.
Bitter melon, Momordica charantia. – unripe spiky fruit visible near top center, orange ripe split fruit barely visible lower right.

In slightly shadier margins, you could find clumps of the native southern river sage, Salvia misella (syn. S. riparia),  and scrambling bits of bitter melon, Momordica charantica, (also called balsam apple, or pear) a member of the cucumber family that has escaped cultivation. This plant has a long history in herbal medicine – in fact, one of its many other names is leprosy gourd. The fruit in the photo will eventually turn bright orange and split open, revealing bright red seeds.

Splitting seed pods  and climbing foliage of rosary pea, Abrus precatorius. (seed pods are nestled in Spanish moss, Tillandsia usneoides)
Brazilian pepper tree, Schinus terebinthifolia – hard to miss the roadside monoculture!.

Rosary pea, or crab’s eye, Abrus precatorius, is another climbing import sporting red seeds and serious toxicity.  The entire plant is poisonous, particularly the pretty seeds that were historically used for weighing, and are still used for jewelry. This species is on the Florida Noxious Weed List. A walk around suburban SW FL wouldn’t be complete without a mention of Brazilian pepper, Schinus terebinthifolia. another red-berried invasive exotic that belongs to Anacardiaceae, taxonomic home of poison ivy, oak, and sumac. This tree is aggressive colonizer of disturbed areas (most of Florida, these days!) and forms a thick canopy that shades out other species.

West Indian meadowbeauty, Rhexia cubensis – I think. The stems have glandular hairs, which distinguish it from the equally pink-flowered smooth meadowbeauty, Rhexia alifanus. (2)
Think this is wild coffee, Psychotria nervosa, one of 2 species of Psychotria found in central Florida. Despite the name and kinship to actual coffee (Coffea spp., also Rubiaceae family)  this plant does not contain caffeine, although many birds favor the berries.

Some of the pond areas have what appear to be conservation buffers that contain some species that might’ve been original to the area. One particularly ‘weedy-looking’ area contained West Indian meadowbeauty, Rhexia cubensis, and Wild coffee, Psychotria nervosa, a native woody shrub species that superficially resembles coral ardisia when squinting. (Coral ardisia has crenate leaf margins, among other distinctions.)

Fragrant water lily, Nymphaea odorata.
Heart-shaped leaves, yellow flowers of spatterdock, Nuphar advena. An exposed rhizome makes a good platform for the giant feet of a juvenile common gallinule

A couple of native aquatic species were still blooming – fragrant water lily, Nymphaea odorata, as well as larger masses of spatterdock, or cow lily, Nuphar advena. 

This looks like an empty Paper pondshell mussel. There were a number of these scattered along the pond edges, some that had been opened by impaling.
Damsels not in distress. Or maybe they are, who knows. Males on top, clasping females behind heads. Females reach up to males’  2nd segment, where sperm has been transferred to a storage vesicle from the 9th segment. (3)

Some of the pond banks revealed remnants of shellfish meals – not sure who was eating these paper pondshell mussels (i think), and if they were harvested from the adjacent ponds, or just eaten here.  Other activity was more evident – damselflies appeared to be reproducing in some kind of synchronicity. If you stared at the pond edge vegetation long enough, dozens of these mating damsels (possibly Ischnura / Forktail sp.) were visible.


Pretty in pink, and scarlet. Roseate skimmer male, top, and Scarlet skimmer, male bottom (FL’s only non-native dragonfly.(3)
Sandhill cranes, early morning. These birds are yuge.

Roseate skimmers were also in present, along with Scarlet skimmers, although neither were spotted in flagrante delicto. Most just seemed to be basking or hunting. Finally, a visit to SW FL wouldn’t be complete without a suburban Sandhill Crane sighting. Apparently, there is a year-round population of around 5000 smaller individuals (‘Florida’ Sandhill Cranes) which is augmented during the winter by larger flocks of migratory ‘Greater’ Sandhill Cranes arriving from the Great Plains. Not sure which group the birds in the photo belong to, but this neighborhood does have some resident breeding birds. Ok, enuf.


Sayonara, says the Little blue heron on the left. The Tri-colored heron on the right is unpeturbed.


  1. Nelson, Gil. The Ferns of Florida a Reference and Field Guide. Pineapple Press, 2000.
  2. Hall, David W., et al. Wildflowers of Florida and the Southeast. DW Hall Consulting, 2011.
  3. Paulson, Dennis. Dragonflies and Damselflies of the East. Princeton University Press, 2011.






It wouldn’t be Halloween without…

coming to a landscrape near you! (image from a series of tubes.)
this one required a level.

…the sound of a chainsaw. Or maybe hedge-trimmer, mixed with chainsaw and leaf-blower.  Here in good ole’ SE NC, you can’t go outdoors in October without a  soundtrack of revving yard equipment. Squared-off hedges and precision edges are the goal. Never mind the cloud of exhaust  enlivened by aerosolized pollen and animal turds. Fun times!

Here’s a clip we recorded of neighborhood sounds this morning, from our patio…



Nights and days of the Furies, #positivity

A tastier version offered by Publix. image from Daily Mail UK.
that’s some exhausted, waterlogged soil…FL photo courtesy TG Boback

It’s been a busy storm season in the southern states. Harvey and Irma fumed and convulsed*, leaving victims across all genera and habitat. Since I can’t help it, I’ll mention some aggravating and/or culpable unmentionables…climate change, sea level rise, greenhouse gases, heat island effect, scientific censorship, global emissions, human population growth, consumption.

…note giant skyscraper shadow across Central Park. image from Time Magazine.

“Expansion always, in all ways – this gem courtesy of Million Dollar Listing’s Ryan Serhant. (at left, in said listing.)  In other words, the goal of nearly every organism. Thinking about this gross pervasive consumerist attitude while hearing endless coverage of various storm tragedies made for some negative head-space.

don’t worry, s/he found the open flowers. Ruby-throated hummingbird and Lobelia puberula, I think…
Cloudless sulphur, enjoying adjacent plant.

Anyway. Despite the weather and attitude, there have been some pretty cool yard sightings lately! We rescued some Lobelia puberula (I think…the perennial blue Lobelias make a confusing genus!**) from new development last year, and what were tiny plants returned this summer to become alluring (and also toxic) giants. Seriously. They are about 4′ tall, and have been covered in butterflies, bees, and hummingbirds since starting to bloom about 2 weeks ago. Since they have long racemes of flowers that start blooming from the bottom up, and seem to occasionally send out secondary racemes, this perennial has a LOOONNNGG bloom period.

bee-u-tee-ful, eh? this guy/gal was YUGE.
female or immature male Painted bunting, no, no, no, YES! flingin’ out everything but the millet.

At the end of August, we spotted this brand new Blinded sphinx moth, Paonias excaecata, hanging out on Atlantic white cedar, Chamaecyparis thyoides. The caterpillars of this species feast on a wide variety of plants, so who knows whence*** it came. And just in the last few days, some Painted buntings, Red-eyed vireos, and Veeries have been haunting the Beautyberry, Callicarpa americana and Yaupon, Ilex vomitoria, and feeders.

Red-eyed vireo – this summer resident has been foraging in the giant  Callicarpa americana and Morella cerifera in our front yard for the last 3 days.

*Moil would be another good description, especially for Harvey.

there ya go.

**  “Lobelia puberula is a polymorphic
species with numerous forms (McVaugh 1936)
that have been considered varieties by some

*** did you know that ‘from whence’ is redundant? I didn’t, until checking usage for this post…


July on St. George Island

Ceratiola ericoides, Florida Rosemary or Sand Heath Not actually a rosemary. This species leaches a chemical defense against pests and competition that creates a ring of bare sand around each plant. It is also a larval host for 2 seasonal forms of the Emerald Moth Caterpillar. (1) The leaves of this plant, like many other coastal scrub species, are needle-like, and have a waxy coating that offers protection from rapid evaporation.
Conradina canescens, Scrub or False Rosemary. Also not a rosemary, but at least this one is a member of the mint family, Lamiaceae…

Barrier islands are fantastic places to see fascinating plant and animal adaptations to dynamic, high disturbance conditions. St. George Island, located ~3 to 8 miles off of panhandle Florida’s (not really) forgotten Gulf coast, is presently about 28 miles long, with an average width of about 3/4 of a mile. It is part of a chain of islands that form the outer rim of Apalachicola Bay, one of the most biologically diverse and productive estuarine systems in the world. (the lower portion of the Apalachicola River basin was designated a UNESCO World Biosphere Reserve in 1983.)

Black-senna, Seymeria cassioides. This species is hemiparasitic to pine. If its roots make contact with pine roots, the plant grows quickly and completes its life cycle, although it is capable of reaching maturity without a pine host. (3)
These may be Florida harvester ants, Pogonomyrmex badius – hauling a False Rosemary flower to a subterranean nest. This species harvests seeds from a variety of plants, and stores them in damp chambers for consumption and larvae-feeding. (2). Although these ants will harvest seeds right off of living plants, they will dispose of the chaff in other chambers near the periphery of their nest. Perhaps that is what is happening here…?

Although St. George has been developed as a popular vacation spot, its ecology remains evident in natural areas across the island (various map links here), as well as many yards, roadsides, and ditches. These photos represent just a tiny cross-section of barrier island flora and fauna…

1. Whitney, Eleanor Noss., D. Bruce. Means, and Eryk Jadaszewski. Florida’s Uplands. Sarasota, FL: Pineapple, 2014. Print

2. Tschinkel WR, Kwapich CL (2016) The Florida Harvester Ant, Pogonomyrmex badius, Relies on Germination to Consume Large Seeds. PLoS ONE 11(11): e0166907.

fruit of  Turtleweed or Saltwort, Batis maritima. This salt marsh/salt flat plant is a larval host for Southern white and Eastern pygmy blue butterflies.
Old lightning whelk shell, Sinistrofulgur sinistrum – found in a sand bar a few hundred yards offshore. Lightning whelks were a popular food source for early Native American communities along the Gulf coast. The shell’s unusual ‘sinistral’ (clockwise) spiral is thought to have had spiritual significance, representing cycles of the sun (east to west) and birth to death. The shells were modified for a variety of uses, from beads and gorgets (chest pendants) to a wide range of cutting tools. Lightning whelk shell vessels were used also for black drink (Yaupon, Ilex vomitoria) ceremonies. (4)

3. Grelen, H. E., and W. F. Mann. “Distribution of Senna Seymeria (Seymeria Cassioides) a Root Parasite on Southern Pines.” Economic Botany 27.3 (1973): 339-42. Web

4. Marquardt, William H., and Laura Kozuch. “The Lightning Whelk: An Enduring Icon of Southeastern North American Spirituality.” Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 42 (2016): 1-26. Web



mercy mercy me (the ecology)

…oh things ain’t what they used to be… –  Marvin Gaye, 1971!

Southern sheepkill, Kalmia carolina, in bloom April 2015. Sometimes also called Carolina wicky, or Carolina bog myrtle…
Pyxie-moss, Pyxidanthera barbulata. A teeny tiny alpine-looking shrub, blooming in April 2015.

What was intended as an exercise in learning local ecology has become a documentation of its inexorable paving-over. Mostly in the name of more patio homes with 3-car garages, but also some strip centers (to buy crap to go in the garage), and a whole bunch of storage facilities (for the extra crap when the garage is full.)


Pale grass-pink orchid, Calopogon pallidus. Yep, just growing in what lots of folks describe as ‘wasteland.’
Another ‘wasteland’ gem, Coastal plain spreading pogonia orchid, Cleiestesiopsis oricamporum.


Not far from here, one of the last chunks of wet pine flatwoods/sandy pine savanna, (or, ‘premier real estate opportunity’) is in planning to become a developer fantasy of multifamily housing and retail. It’s a place a few of us like to explore (trespass) to enjoy its incredible diversity of rare plants. birds, and other creatures. A few of the life forms found there might even be the last of their kind in this area. Any time of year is a good time to find something unusual and beautiful, especially if you are patient and enjoy squatting. And don’t mind biting or stinging bugs.

Yellow pitcherplant, Sarracenia flava.
Purple pitcher plant, Sarracenia purpurea.


Like other remaining relic real places around here, this one is doomed for the grader. Efforts have been made with the owner, the county, and even various land trusts, but this little pocket just doesn’t seem to register as a keeper. And although wetland portions have been delineated, it is still possible to alter them with the right permits and greased palms. For the sake of visual record and posterity, here are some photos…

Venus flytrap, Dionaea muscipula, with Orange milkwort, Polygala lutea. Yup, these might be representatives of the LAST population in our county, which is why the location is a secret.
Flowers of Venus flytrap, with Zelus sp., an Assasin bug

To honor an Am-ur-ikan tradition, maybe the owner will name the new development for what will be removed, plus a nonsensical ‘place’ word. As in Flytrap Plantation. Pond Pine Dunes. or Orchid Arbor. Perhaps some boutique-ish-looking price tags on the plants might help? On second thought, bad idea (and a big part of the problem to begin with) – isolating plants from ecological context for pure aesthetics devalues the magic of the assemblage. Fear would be a better motivator to leave this alone – there is no shortage of snakes… SSSSSS…..

Tree frog, Hyla sp.,Nothing to help with scale here, other than the pine needle to the right. This one was less than an inch long.
On the prowl. Looks like a young banded water snake, Nerodia fasciata, but not sure…

stuck on you…

i’ve got a feelin down deep in my adeagus that i just can’t lose…

– apologies to Lionel Richie and fans.

Persimmon beetles are also known as Clay-colored leaf beetles. On leaf of Diospyros virginiana, American persimmon.

Persimmon beetles, Anomoea laticlavia, are members of Chrysomelidae, the leaf-eating beetles.

ripening fruit – these will taste much better after they’ve gone through a frost…
doing a few things at the same time…

Guess where we found them? In addition to getting busy with each other in a variety of postures, they appeared (simultaneously, in some cases) to be making short work of young leaves of American persimmon, Diospyros virginiana. Persimmon beetles belong to the subfamily Cryptocephalinae, or Case-bearing beetles. They lay eggs that are enclosed in carefully constructed containers made of feces and other excretions. As the larvae mature, they open and flip the case, using it as a base to construct a more elaborate structure (or ‘scatoshell’) also made from feces and leaf detritus.  (1,2,3,4)

Persimmon beetles on Prunus serotina, Black Cherry. What are the cues while in flight that attract them to one plant species versus another?
Underside of D. virginiana branch – the beginnings of fall fruit. What is it about persimmon that makes it more appealing/palatable in this region to these beetles?

Although records in NC are mostly from Persimmon, in other parts of the SE , this species is also associated with legumes (Fabaceae), oaks (Quercus), willow (Salix), and in the Great Plains, more specifically with leadplant (Amorpha).  (1) In our yard, they also appeared to be seeking and eating Carolina cherry (Prunus caroliniana), and black cherry, (P. serotina), although in smaller numbers. They are not noted agricultural pests.

“Wow, you’ve really grown up.” said the ant…

Many of the leaf-eating beetles (during their larval phase) are myrmecophiles – they have some association with ants.  Anomoea spp. have been noted to eat ant detritus and humus. (4)


  1. Baker, James. “Claycolored Leaf Beetle PDIC Factsheets.” Claycolored Leaf Beetle | NC State Extension Publications. N.p., 10 June 2015. Web. 11 May 2017.
  2. Morphology and Systematics: PhytophagaRichard A.B. Leschen, Rolf G. Beutel. Walter de Gruyter, Apr 1, 2014
  3. Eaton, Eric R., Rick Bowers, and Kenn Kaufman. Kaufman Field Guide to Insects of North America. New York: Houghton Mifflin, 2007. Print.
  4. Agrain FA, Buffington ML, Chaboo CS, Chamorro ML, Schöller M (2015) Leaf beetles are ant-nest beetles: the curious life of the juvenile stages of case-bearers (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Cryptocephalinae). In: Jolivet P, Santiago-Blay J, Schmitt M (Eds) Research on Chrysomelidae 5. ZooKeys 547: 133–164.